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Title: Endoparasitic Infection and Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Escherichia coli and Salmonella Isolated from Pet Birds in Chattogram
Authors: Md. Bayzid, Md.
Keywords: Antibiotic resistance, blood parasite, coproscopy, E. coli, gastrointestinal parasite, pet birds, Salmonella spp.
Issue Date: Jun-2020
Publisher: Chattogram Veterinary and Animal Sciences University Chattogram-4225, Bangladesh
Abstract: Different parasitic and bacterial diseases are the crucial impediment in the rearing of pet birds. Gastrointestinal tract and blood are the major predilection sites for parasitic infection. The aim of this study was to identify the gastrointestinal (GI), as well as blood parasitic infection and the occurrence of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. with antimicrobial resistance (AMR) patterns from pet birds in Bangladesh. Between June, 2019 and March, 2020 a total of 549 (for GI parasite), 150 (for AMR of E. coli and Salmonella spp.) freshly voided faecal samples and 311 blood samples were collected from Chattogram metropolitan area, Bangladesh. For the detection of GI parasites coproscopy were performed and for isolation of E. coli and Salmonella spp. different microbiological tests were conducted followed by antibiotic sensitivity test (AST) and antibiotic resistant genes were identified by molecular technique. Blood samples tested through multiplex PCR method for Haemoproteus, Plasmodium and Leucocytozoon spp. detection. The occurrence of GI parasite was 18.9% (CI=15.7– 22.5%). Among them the protozoal cyst was 10.9% (CI=8.40–13.8%) containing Eimeria 7.7% (CI=5.6-10.2%), Isospora 2.9% (CI=1.7-4.7%), Caryospora 0.4% (CI=0-1.3%). Among nematode, Ascaridia infection rate was 3.5% (CI=2.1-5.4%), Capillaria 1.7% (CI=1-3%), Heterakis 0.91% (CI=0-2%). Within cestode, the Coanotaenia was found 0.36% (CI=0-1%). But no trematode egg was detected. The occurrence of blood parasitic disease was 2.25% (CI=0.91-4.58%). Among them 0.32% (CI=0.4-1.8%) was Haemoproteus, 1.3% (CI=0.35-3.26%) Plasmodium and 0.64% (CI=0.4-2.3%) Leucocytozoon. The overall prevalence of E. coli in pet birds was 48.7% (95% CI=40.4-57). The AST revealed that, the 91.78% isolates were resistant to ceftriaxone, 86.3% to tetracycline and 75.34% to sulfomethoxazole-trimethoprim. To the contrary, 98.63% isolates were sensitive to colistin sulfate followed by 97.26% to gentamicin. Majority of E. coli isolates were multidrug resistant and carried blaTEM, tetA, tetB, sul1, sul2, gyrA, gyrB, parC and CTX-M-2 genes. The overall infection rate of Salmonella spp. in pet birds were 2.7 % (95% CI=0.7-6.7). The AST evolved that the isolates were 100% resistant to ceftriaxone, 75% to azithromycin, 50% to amoxiciline and tetracycline followed by gentamicin 25%. To the contrary, 100% isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin and colistin sulfate. Different pet bird’s spp. was infected with various types of gastrointestinal and blood parasites. Due to cherished in intensive care with regular anthelmintic therapy, less vector availability, the occurrence of gastrointestinal as well as blood parasitic infections were less. In order to haphazard used of antibiotics, AMR were developed in E. coli and Salmonella spp.
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