Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Authors: Rahman, Md. Kaisar
Keywords: Rhesus macaque, AMR, Salmonella, Staphylococcus, Enterococcus.
Issue Date: May-2018
Publisher: A thesis submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Science in Epidemiology Department of Medicine and Surgery Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University Chittagong-4225, Bangladesh
Abstract: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a growing global health threat both for human and animal owing to the indiscriminate use of antimicrobials. Environmental pollution of antimicrobials from human and animal waste has been linked to AMR within wildlife populations, including rhesus macaques. This study aims to better describe the epidemiology of AMR in Salmonella, Staphylococcus and Enterococcus Species from rhesus macaques. Total 399 fecal samples were collected noninvasively from the macaques during January to June 2017 and observations of human-livestock-macaque interaction were recorded daily for 4 hours from each site for 3 days. Samples were cultured and an antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) for 12 antimicrobials for each organism was conducted using the Kirby-Bauer Disc diffusion method on selective media. Isolates were confirmed by biochemical characteristics and PCR. The overall prevalence of Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Enterococcus spp. in rhesus macaque was 5%, 16% and 70%, respectively. Results yielded 5% (18/399; 95% CI: 3-7) of fecal samples were positive for resistant Salmonella spp., 15% (61/399; 95% CI: 12-19) for resistant Staphylococcus spp. and 61% (66/109; 95% CI: 51-70) sample for resistant Enterococcus spp. In case of Enterococcus spp.; 36% (39/109; 95% CI: 27-46) and 33% (36/109; 95% CI: 24-42) of the fecal sample were positive for Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, respectively. The odds of antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp and Staphylococcus spp. ware significantly higher in peri-urban habitat (OR=6.6; CI: 1-46, P=0.05) and (OR=5.6; CI: 1-26, P=0.02), respectively than other habitats (rural and urban). In case of age, Enterococcus spp. was significantly higher in adult (OR=3.8; CI: 1-12, P=0.01) than the juvenile macaque. Among the antimicrobials, Salmonella spp. detected resistance to tetracycline (89%), azithromycin (83%), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (50%), and nalidixic acid (44%). In case of Staphylococcus spp.; Ampicillin (93%) was highly resistant and less resistant to methicillin (31%), clindamycin (26%), rifampicin (18%). Enterococcus spp. were resistant to streptomycin (96%) followed by tetracycline 63%, erythromycin 61%, linezolid 30%, ampicillin 29% and ciprofloxacin 25%. AST profiling of. Direct contact (within 15-20 min and <20m) with Macaque-Human and Macaque-Livestock interactions and sharing same resources for feeding/watering was revealed as one of the main reasons for higher AMR in macaque against Enterococcus spp. and Salmonella spp. Resistant bacteria were found in macaques which may be the greater risk for future. Those bacteria refer to the interaction among human-livestock-macaque for feeding and drinking practices might be the possible source of AMR in macaques. The study suggests the virulent genetic analysis and proper disposal of wastages to prevent the spread of resistant organisms in the environment.
Appears in Collections:Thesis-MS

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
Thesis_Kaisar _Corrected (print).pdf2.49 MBAdobe PDFView/Open

Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.