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|UNDERSTANDING THEECOLOGY OF ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE OF PET BIRDS IN BANGLADESH
|Antimicrobial, Sustainable development, Ecology, Resistance, E. coli, Staphylococcus sp.
|A thesis submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Science in Epidemiology Department of Medicine and Surgery Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University Chittagong-4225, Bangladesh
|Pet birds are recreational bird species that reared as pets with the exception of poultry. In Bangladesh more than twenty species of pet birds are reared by pet lovers. Budgerigar is the most common among all pet birds. However, antimicrobial resistances (AMR) became a threatened issue for pet birds as well as pet lovers. Thus, this health related sustainable development aims are considerably less attainable with the growing threat of antimicrobial resistance. As the bird keepers may have close contact with cage pet birds, they can be exposed to resistant organisms carried by them. Therefore this study was aimed to understand antimicrobial resistance patterns of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus sp. isolated from Budgerigar in Chattagram. From December, 2016 to June, 2017, 220 cloacal swab samples were collected from budgerigars. A structured questionnaire survey was conducted on farm owners to know the management and disease ecology of Budgerigar at the farm level. The standard microbiological procedures were followed for isolation of zoonotic bacteria’s. Budgerigar was found to be 24.74% among all pet species. The prevalence of E. coli and Staphylococcus sp. were recorded as 22.27% (n=49) and 18.18% (n=40), respectively. Poor Body Condition Score (p≤0.04) and tap water (p≤0.03) showed significant influences on AMR of E. coli in budgerigar. In case AMR of Staphylococcus spp. young bird (p≤0.003) and diseased bird (p≤0.001) were found as significant variables. Antibiotic Susceptibility tests against E. coli and Staphylococcus spp. were conducted using disc diffusion method for nine antibiotics. All (100%, n=49) E. coli isolates were resistant against amoxicillin, sulfomethoxazol, trimethoprim, and cefixime but lowest resistant was found in ciprofloxacin (6.12%). Moreover, we found 100% (n=40) multidrug resistance in Staphylococcus spp. for enrofloxacin and gentamycin followed by others and lowest for ciprofloxacin and azithromycin (5%). In conclusion, this study presented multidrug resistant E. coli and Staphylococcus sp. isolated from the pet birds. The indiscriminate use of antibiotics on pet birds should be reduced to lessen the risk of public health importance multi-drug resistance bacteria. By placing antimicrobial resistance in pet birds within the sustainable development agenda, we seek to intensify the national and international commitments to finding a solution to this emerging threat in pet birds sector before it turns into a global crisis.
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