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Authors: Tahmina Chowdhury, Tahmina
Keywords: Infant formula, Heavy metal, Trace element, Proximate composition
Issue Date: Jun-2019
Publisher: Chattogram Veterinary & Animal Sciences University
Abstract: Infant formula is a synthetic version of mothers' milk belongs to a class of materials known as dairy substitutes. Although the World Health Organization recommends breastfeeding as the best feeding choice, infant formulas remain an alternative to breast-milk and plays an important role in infant’s diet. The composition of most infant formulas has been increasingly altered to create a product which attempts to be as similar to breast milk as possible. The present study was carried out to evaluate the proximate composition, heavy and trace elements in five commercial infant formulas collected from Chattogram and in five homemade infant formulas. The proximate composition was determined by AOAC standard methods and metals wre quantified by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The moisture and carbohydrate content of both commercial and homemade formulas were within the standard level. However, the average protein content of the commercial infant formula (CIF) (15.43%) was considerably higher than that of homemade infant formula (HIF) (6.21%) and is also well below the recommended level for protein in infant food (12-20%). Also, the average fat content of the CIF (14.11 %) significantly exceeded the level found in HIF (1.59 %) and the set recommended level for fat in infant food (29.3- 40.0 %). The ash content was higher (3.03%) in CIF than HIF (1.90%), but both of formulas fiber content not exceeds the standard maximum value of 5%. The actual lead (Pb) content in all samples except RP (0.08 mg/kg) were higher the maximum allowed limit, 0.08 mg/kg. Another heavy metal Cadmium (Cd) average value was 0.03mg/kg in CIF and within the permissible limits 0.05mg/kg where HIF contained higher amount of Cd 0.06 mg/kg. Furthermore, average concentration of Chromium (Cr) in commercial infant formula sample was at higher concentration (0.144 mg/kg) than in homemade formula at 0.112 mg/kg where both are within the permissible limits 0.10-1.0 mg/kg. The concentrations of copper (Cu) found in this study were below the maximum allowed limits (1.5–2.5 mg/kg) and no health hazard is expected from copper in the consumption of these brands of infant foods. However, the zinc (Zn) contents in both of formulas fulfill the standard level (3.33 mg/kg) but iron (Fe) content of HIF was lower (1.64mg/kg) than standard value (2.9 mg/L) where the CIF contained 3.64 mg/kg.
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