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Authors: Sayema Khanam Siddika, Sayema Khanam Siddika
Keywords: Plant extracts, Alcohol based herbal hand sanitizers, Phytochemicals, antimicrobial activity, Zone of inhibition
Issue Date: Jun-2022
Publisher: Chattogram Veterinary & Animal Sciences University
Abstract: The study is based on the formulation of new hand sanitizers that destroys germs as well as maintains skin health. For that reason, this study was focused on making alcohol based herbal hand sanitizers. The advantage of alcohol based herbal sanitizer is that it is free from side effects. The major objectives of this study were to formulate Twelve types hand sanitizers from nine types of plant extracts including Neem, Tulsi, Eucalyptus, Mahogany, Ash gourd, Meadow grass, Tamarind, Guava, Lata and two types of nanoparticles solutions using Isopropyl alcohol, glycerin, olive oil, honey, lemon essence, Hydrogen peroxide and distilled water as well as to assess the antimicrobial activity against three types of bacteria such as E.coli, Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus by comparing the sanitizers with blank hand sanitizer, Hexisol and market brand hand sanitizer. Moreover, there were other objectives including to identify nanoparticles forming plant by silver nitrate solution and plant extracts, to identify phytochemicals in plant extracts, to evaluate physical parameters such as color, odor, and pH of the formulated sanitizers. According to phytochemical tests, all the eight phytochemicals tested were found in Eucalyptus and Mahogany plant extracts but less than 8 phytochemicals were found in other plant extracts. The results of physical parameters have shown that the sanitizers exhibited standard pH and did not show any disagreeable color or odor. The antimicrobial tests revealed that the zone of inhibition against E.coli of Guava leaves hand sanitizer was the largest (31 ± 1·00 mm); the zone of inhibition on Salmonella spp. of Eucalyptus nanoparticles sanitizer was greater (27·16 ± 1·04 mm) than any other hand sanitizers; Mix herbs hand sanitizer had the greatest zone of inhibition on Staphylococcus aureus (19·16 ± 1·04 mm).The zones of inhibition of all sanitizers are larger than blank sanitizers. Indeed, it is proven without plant extract the zone of inhibition is small. In addition, zone of inhibition of Sepnil (market brand sanitizer) against E.coli, salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus were 21·16 ± 1·25, 20·5 ± 0·5, 12·16 ± 0·76 mm respectively which are less than the previously mentioned herbal hand sanitizers. Again, the zone of inhibition of Hexisol against E.coli, Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus were 34·33 ± 1·52, 38·5 ± 1·32, 28·5 ± 0·5 mm respectively which were greater than previously mentioned herbal hand sanitizers. Though the zone of inhibition of Hexisol is greater against all three bacteria, it contains only chlorhexidine gluconate and Isopropyl alcohol which may cause dryness, irritation x and allergens. Sepnil also contains synthetic product which may be harmful to skin. Therefore, the formulated hand sanitizers are better than Hexisol and Sepnil in many purposes.
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