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Authors: Barua, Brishti
Keywords: Peste des Petits Ruminants, Prevalence, Risk factors, Haematology
Issue Date: Dec-2016
Publisher: Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University Chittagong – 4225, Bangladesh
Abstract: Bangladesh is an agro based country where livestock is a cardinal component of agriculture. Goat rearing has gained the popularity as a subsidiary and sometimes as a main occupation among rural families, marginal farmers, children, landless laborers and distressed women for its low investment and high profit. Infectious diseases are important hindrance for goat rearing, whereas Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is the most devastating viral disease in goats. A descriptive study 1 followed by case-control study was conducted on clinical PPR cases in goats at Teaching Veterinary Hospital (TVH) of Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (CVASU) during 15 August 2015 to 30 December 2016. The aim of this study was to estimate proportionate prevalence of PPR, measure the frequency of clinical signs, drugs prescribed against PPR and determine the potential risk factors associated with the occurrence of PPR. Another descriptive study 2 also carried out to estimate proportionate PPR prevalence on the basis of clinical signs and symptoms and molecular testing, PPR sero-prevalence and assess the effect of PPR on lymphocyte and neutrophil counts in goats at TVH of CVASU and other selected sites of Chittagong Metropolitan City. A total of 922 clinically diagnosed PPR goat cases and 2766 non PPR goat cases as control with epidemiological data were extracted from the TVH recording system for the case-control study. For another descriptive study 2 a total of 138 PPR suspected goats were studied in the selected study sites (50 suspected goats at TVH during November 15, 2015 to January 30, 2016 and 88 suspected goats at other sites during August15, 2015 to October 15, 2016). Blood samples and nasal swabs were collected from all goats. Blood samples were used for PPR serology and hematological evaluation whereas swab samples were used for PPR molecular diagnosis. Most frequent group of clinical signs of PPR in goats was nasal discharge, stomatitis and diarrhoea (17.5%), followed by coughing, stomatitis and diarrhoea (15.1%) and nasal discharge with coughing and diarrhoea (14.7%). Most frequent drugs prescribed against PPR in goats were sulphonamides (70.2%) followed by aminoglycosides (15.4%). Page | xv Regardless of study type the proportionate prevalence of PPR in goats was varied from 21.3% to 28.7%. Whereas the proportionate PPR sero prevalence was 50%. The PPR cases in vaccinated goats were nil in the descriptive study 2. PPR infection significantly decreased lymphocyte counts but significantly increased neutrophil counts in studied goats. Rainy season had 2.4 times higher odds of PPR in goats than in combined summer and winter seasons (p<0.001), combined intensive and semi intensive systems of rearing had 4.3 times higher odds of PPR in goats than in combined free range and tethering (p<0.001), Black Bengal Goat had 1.2 times higher odds than in Jamunapari and Cross (p=0.015) and cachectic body condition had 5.7 times higher odds than in fair and good conditions (p<0.001). This study may explore frequent clinical signs and symptoms in PPR infection, diagnose clinical PPR through molecular testing, assess relationship between PPR and checking blood parameters. This study also determine potential risk factors measuring strength of association, and undertake the level of drug usage, proportionate prevalence and sero prevalence in the descriptive study 1 and 2. In conclusion, diagnosis of clinical PPR should be based on clinical signs with blood profiling and molecular testing in some cases, extra care should be taken during rainy season turned out as PPR season. The goats should be vaccinated against PPR before starting of the rainy season, hygiene should be improved in intensive and semi intensive rearing system, nutritional management should be considered in cachectic body condition.
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